I. Basic Data
1. Name: Guizhou Province
2. Area: 170,000 square kilometers
3. Population: 35.25 (the 2000 population census)
4. Capital: Guiyang
5. Geography: It is located in the northeastern part of the Yungui Plateau, which is situated in the southwest of China. It is within the middle sub-tropical zone sharing borders with the provinces of Sichuan, Hunan, Yunnan and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Guizhou has waves of mountains of various sizes and complex landforms and topography. Its climate varies from place to place and the natural landscape is unique. With its warm weather and sufficient precipitation, Guizhou is a mountainous area typical in the sub-tropical plateau zone.
6. Natural Resources: The arable land in Guizhou Province totals more than 28 million mu (15 mu = 1 hectare). The arable land per capita is only 0.8 mu. The land for grain production accounts for three fourths of the total arable land. Guizhou is rich in forest resources. The production of some famous forestry products in Guizhou ranks it high on the list of provinces in China. Guizhou also boasts of rich deposits of minerals, water resources and wildlife. It has a unique natural landscape such as the well-known Yellow Fruit Tree Waterfall and the nearby Limestone Cave and the Stone Woods, constituting its exclusive tourism resources.
7. Economy: The GDP in 2000 totaled 99.353 billion Yuan with per capita GDP being 2,662 Yuan. The total industrial output was 85.551 billion Yuan and the total agriculture, forestry and fishery output was 41.297 billion Yuan. The total revenue amounted to 15.304 billion Yuan. The total output of grain amounted to 11.613 million tons. Apart from its uneven topography, landlocked situation, difficult traffic access, late development of its economy and weak agricultural base, the big size of the population, especially the large proportion poor, becomes another constraining factor in the social and economic development of Guizhou Province.
8. People's life: According to statistics at the end of 2000, number of employed persons was 18.6623 million, accounting for 52.94% of the total population. The total wages of staff and workers in 2000 was 14.456 billion Yuan, the average wage of staff and workers was 7,468 Yuan. The per capita disposable income of the urban population was 5,122.21 Yuan and the average per capita net income for the rural population was 1,374.16 Yuan. The per capita annual living expenditures for consumption of urban households was 4,278.28 Yuan. The annual per capita expenditure for living cost of rural residents was 1,096.59 Yuan. The per capita urban and rural resident savings were 1,436.45 Yuan. The per capita net floor space of urban and rural residents was 9.2 m2 and 19.75 m2 respectively. On average, there are 14.8 hospital beds and 12.2 doctors for every 10,000 people.
9. Education: By 2000, there were 24 higher education institutions with 75,493 students and 7,240 teachers; 2,315 medium education institutions with 1,771,953 students and 93,152 teachers, and 17.985 primary schools with 5,002,082 pupils and 174,822 teachers. The general feature of change in terms of the education for the Guizhou population is that the percentage of the educated population at different levels was increasing year by year while that of the illiterate and semi-literate population was declining. The enrollment rate of school-age children was 98.5%. There has been some development in adult education.
II. Population Situation
1. Size and Distribution
Guizhou is a multiethnic province. Among the total population of 35.25 million in 2000, excluding the Han nationality, the population of ethnic groups was 13.34 million, or 37.85% of the total population. It is one of four provinces in China with an ethnic population of more than 10 million. The total population of Guizhou ranks in the middle in China. Its population density is 200 persons/km2, above the national average and tends to climb higher each year. The geographical distribution of the population is uneven and the population density varies. The difference in population distribution between urban and rural areas is also big and the population distribution by geographical area varies greatly. Generally speaking, the population density in the central part of Guizhou is bigger. The population is distributed evenly by areas while the population distribution as a whole shows a concentration in some parts of the province.
2. Population History
Before the foundation of the People's Republic, the population in Guizhou grew very slowly. From 1949 to 2000, the growth rate of the population became faster and there were several baby booms leading to an increasing population base. In terms of the change in the total population, there were four stages as follows. The first stage was from 1949 to 1958 when the population grew in a steady manner from 14.164 million to 17.1002 million, with an annual increase of 2.1%. The second stage between 1959 and 1961 saw a negative growth of the population and a decrease of 1.2043 million in the population. The third stage covers the period from 1962 to 1975, i.e. that of the second baby boom since the foundation of the People's Republic, with the largest number in terms of annual growth and the highest annual growth rate. The fourth stage extends from 1976 to date, during which period, with the implementation of the comprehensive family planning program, the population growth rate started to decrease gradually. Reproduction is in a transitory or primary stage where it is evolving from the traditional pattern of high birth, low mortality and high growth rates to the modern pattern of low birth, low mortality and low growth rates.
3. Population Structure by Sex and Age
From 1949 to date, the general sex ratio has shown an increasing trend. In the 1990s, it has been stabilized around 107.3:100 due in large part to the difference in the mortality rate between males and females and migration. The sex ratio varies from urban to rural areas.
In 2000, out of the total population of 35.25 million, the 0 - 14 age group had a population of 10.68 million, or 30.29% of the total population. The 15 - 64 age group had a population of 22.53 million, accounting for 63.92% of the total, and the 65 and above age group had a population of 2.04 million, constituting 5.79% of the total population. The overall dependence coefficient is 56.46% with the child dependence coefficient being 47.40% and the old age dependence coefficient being 9.05%.
4. Fertility Level and Changes
From the 1980s to now, the birth rate of Guizhou Province rose and fell by areas. In the fourth population census in 1990, the total fertility rate was 3.03, ranked in the middle for China as a whole. In addition, within the province, the total fertility rate of ethnic women is higher than that of women of the Han nationality. In general, the reproduction pattern of women in Guizhou lags behind the national average. In 2000, the birth rate of Guizhou was 20.59 per 1,000 and the natural growth rate was 13.06 per 1,000, both were the highest in China.
5. Mortality and Life Expectancy
Prior to the foundation of the People's Republic, the mortality rate in Guizhou was very high. In 1938, it was as high as 2.94%. The mortality rate fell from 1.567% in the early years after liberation to 0.753% in 1990. From 1949 to 1979, the annual average number of population dying was 270,400, a number which varied greatly from period to period. Since it entered the 1980s, the mortality rate of Guizhou has remained low for a long time. The mortality rate of ethnic groups is higher than that of the Han. In 2000, the mortality rate in Guizhou was 7.53 per 1,000 and ranked the third place from high to low in China.
Life expectancy at birth for males in Guizhou in 1935 was 34.85 years and for females 34.65 years. In 1959, it grew to 49.57 years and 42.42 years respectively. In the first 10 years after the foundation of the People's Republic, the life expectancy at birth of the Guizhou population increased by more than 10 years, with an increase of more than one year every year. Since the 1980s, the average life expectancy at birth for males has risen to 61.07 years and to 61.55 years for females. The 1990 census showed that the two figures increased to 64.63 and 66.19 years respectively. In 2000, the life expectancy for total population was 64.29 years, with 63.04 years for males and 65.63 years for females.
6. Marriage Status, Family Size and Type
The fourth census show and that the unmarried population accounts for 28.78% of the age group 15 and above. The percentage of unmarried females in the population is smaller than that of males. The divorce rate for males was higher than for females. The percentage of the population unmarried in each age group becomes smaller as their age increases. The percentage of the married population becomes bigger as the persons' get older, reaching the highest level in the group aged 35 - 39 years, after which it begins to decline. The percentage of the widowed population in each age group becomes larger when the group gets older. The percentage of the population divorced is highest among the middle aged population. The more educated the population is the bigger the percentage of its divorced population. Moreover, the marital status of the population varies from area to area and from urban to rural areas. In 1999, among the 25.844 million population in the 15 and above group, unmarried people accounted 21.59%, the first marriage having spouses people accounted 70.43%, the non-first marriages having spouses people accounted 1.48%, the divorced people accounted 0.82%, and the widowed people accounted 5.66%.
The period between 1953 and 1982 witnessed an increase in the family size in Guizhou, which began to shrink in 1982. It was 4.41 people per household. That in urban areas was smaller than in rural areas. However, the difference is diminishing. In recent years, although family size has decreased quite substantially, it is above the national average. Households in the province were characterized by the extended family with two generations living together; there is a rising proportion of single generation families and a decreasing proportion of families with three or more generations living together. In 2000, family size in Guizhou was 3.71 people on the average.
7. Aging of the Population
The fourth census conducted in 1990 showed that the population aged 65 and above was 4.61% to total population. In comparison with the situation in 1982, the elderly population was increasing in both absolute numbers and percentage. Compared with 1964, the population in Guizhou has transformed from a young to an adult pattern and it will take quite a long time to reach the aged pattern. According to the 1990 census, among the elderly above 60, 32% of them are still employed; of that proportion, males accounted for 63.07% and females 36.93%. In the 2000 population census, the population aged 65 and above was 5.79% to total.
8. Population Quality
Before the foundation of the People's Republic, education, science and technology were at a low level relatively of development. The situation improved substantially after liberation. Since the 1980s, the population with a higher education has been growing fast while the population with a medium level education is growing slowly. The illiterate and semi-literate population is decreasing. While the education level of women is growing rapidly, it is still low as a whole and the gap between men and women, and urban and rural areas, is still apparent. Currently, a slow tempo characterizes educational development, thus limiting the rapid improvement of the population's well-being. In 1990, the illiterate rate was 24.27%, but in 2000, it was 13.89%, down 10.38%.
9. Migration and the Floating Population
Due to the province's limited economic capacity and resources relative to its current population, the number of outgoing migrants outstrips that of incoming migrants. Geographically speaking, both the outgoing and incoming migrants are concentrated in the eastern part of China, south of central and southwestern China. Migrants into Guizhou are mainly from rural areas of other provinces, and they flow into the urban areas of Guizhou. The outgoing migrants are mainly from rural areas in Guizhou. Their chief destinations are rural areas in other provinces, followed in frequency by urban areas outside Guizhou. Overall, inter-provincial migration involves mostly movement of the rural population. The incoming migrants are engaged mainly in business and commerce while most of the outgoing migrants more for marital purposes. The large scale of migration as a whole, whether incoming or outgoing, follows the rule of urbanization as reflected in the places of origin and destination of the migrants.
10. Population, Resources and the Environment
With its large population, narrow land base, high population density and small area of arable land per capita, the competition between people and land is intensifying. Despite the high per capita availability of water resources, water energy and various minerals, the actual per capita ownership of resources is low due to the limited development and application of those resources. The relationship between population and natural resources is characterized by the following features: insufficiency of economic resources, relatively too large a population and over-stretched economic capacity. In addition, given the vulnerable ecological environment in Guizhou, the frequent activities of the population have caused a decrease in natural forests, reduction in resources and environmental quality, loss of soil because of the over-cultivation of land and pollution caused by three kinds of industrial waste, worsening the damage by mankind to the environment.
11. Ethnic Population
Guizhou has a concentration of multiethnic groups. According to the 1990 census, there are altogether 49 ethnic groups. Excluding the Han nationality, the total population of all ethnic groups reached 11.2423 million, accounting for 34.71% of the total population. The ethnic groups in Guizhou live far apart from each other and are scattered in wide areas. Many ethnic groups are mixed and some of them are concentrated in small areas. The distribution of the ethnic population in urban and rural areas is even to some extent. The sex ratio among ethnic groups is higher than the national average. The age structure of the population is of the adult pattern while the reproductive pattern still shows an increase. The overall education level of the ethnic groups is low and the social and economic development of the ethnic areas is lagging behind compared with other areas. According to the 1990 and 2000 population census, the minority nationalities were 11.24 million and 13.34 million respectively, the average annual growth rate was 1.68%.
Guiyang City, capital of Guizhou Province, is located in the southwest of China, on the eastern side of the Yungui Plateau. It is said that in ancient times, Guiyang was surrounded by dense bamboo groves and was famous for producing a musical instrument known as a Zhu. Hence the city is known also as Zhu.
A great number of attractive sights are to be found here, the Hongfeng Lake (Red Maple Lake), Huaxi Park and an abundance of historical relics of the Ming and Qing dynasties, such as the Jiaxiu Tower, Wenchang Pavilion, Yangming Cave and the Qingyan Ancient Town. All of these scenic spots have their own interesting stories.
Guiyang is home to more than 30 minority ethnic groups including Miao, Buyi, Dong and Hui, etc. Consequently the city abounds with unique folk culture and traditions that give rise to many colorful ethnic minority activities.
Minority festivals and souvenirs are popular with tourists. Items such as festival costumes, masks and embroideries can be purchased in the shopping street, Beijing Lu, Zhonghua Lu and Yan'an Lu. Local products such as the Maotai Wine (Moutai) are widely available in the large supermarkets.
The local food is spicy but should you prefer western cuisine or that of other parts of China you will find the star-rated hotels and quality restaurants will satisfy your needs.
The life pace of Guiyang people is rather laid back compared to that of other cities. Guiyang people have a habit of going to bed late and getting up late. So it is common to see local people strolling, chatting, and playing the chess in the street. You will find that life here is altogether quite easy going!
The city of Anshun, located to the east of Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau and along the Guiyang-Kunming Railway, has become the center of tourism for the middle western part of Guizhou. Early in the Warring States Period (403-221BC), this area was the state of Yelang Kingdom and became Anshun Prefecture in the Ming Dynasty. In 1958, a municipality government was set up there.
Anshun is also a cultural melting pot with contributions from the Miao, Buyi and Gelao minority groups. These citizens of Anshun are proud of the diverse mix of cultures which may be seen in: architecture styles - Folk House of Guizhou Tunbao; festivals - Tiaohua Festival, Baishu Festival, Ox King Festival, Changxin Festival; ethnic arts & crafts - brocade, wax printing, kitchen knife, embroidery; finery and decorations; and their special local foods and snacks- crystal bean jelly, glutinous rice cake, Zhenning Bobo Candy. The Living Fossil of Drama - Di Opera at Anshun is another "must-see" for visitors to Guizhou province.
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