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The Chinese Dynasties

Northern and Southern Dynasties

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Northern and Southern Dynasties
The History of Northern and Southern Dynasties

~~TThe Southern and Northern Dynasties (420-589) followed the Sixteen Kingdoms and preceded Sui Dynasty in China and was an age of civil wars and disunity.

During this period the process of sinicization accelerated among the non-Chinese arrivals in the north and among the aboriginal tribesmen in the south. Many northern Chinese also immigranted to the south. This process was also accompanied by the increasing popularity of Buddhism (introduced into China in the first century A.D.) in both north and south China.

The south and north developed into a relatively stable equilibrium, due to geographical differences. The flat steppes of the north gave a significant edge to cavalry, while the riverlands of the south gave a significant edge to naval warfare. A strong navy on the Yangtze River could protect the south from the north, since cavalry was useless in the riverlands. Likewise, logistics difficulties for the horse-poor south made it difficult to maintain a successful northern campaign. Depending on the relative strengths of the states, the Huai River area and the Sichuan basin were the primary areas of significant territorial changes. This barrier was only overcome by the first emperor of the Sui Dynasty, who built a large invading navy in the Sichuan basin.

Despite the political disunity of the times, there were notable technological advances. The invention of gunpowder (at that time for use only in fireworks) and the wheelbarrow is believed to date from the sixth or seventh century. Advances in medicine, astronomy, and cartography are also noted by historians.

 

The Sovereigns of Northern and Southern Dynasties
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Sovereigns in the Northern and Southern Dynasties Period
Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao ) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao ) and their according range of years
Northern dynasty
Bei Northern Wei Dynasty 386-535
Convention: Bei (Northern) Wei + posthumous name
As a well known fact Tuoba family changed their family name to yuan2) during the reign of Xiao Wen Di in 496 so we will also change from there.
dao4 wu3 di4
tou4 ba2 gui1
386-409
Dengguo ( deng1 guo2) 386-396

Huangshi (huang2 shi3) 396-398
Tianxing (tian1 xing1) 398-404
Tianci ( tian1 ci4) 404-409

ming2 yuan2 di4
tou4 ba2 si4
409-423
Yongxing ( yong3 xing1) 409-413

Shenrui (shen2 rui4) 414-416
Taichang (ai4 chang2) 416-423

tai4 wu3 di4
tou4 ba2 tao2
424-452
Shiguang (shi3 guang1) 424-428

Shenjia (shen2 jia1) 428-431
Yanhe ( yan2 he2) 432-434
Taiyan (ai4 yan2) 435-440
Taipingzhenjun (i4 ping2 zhen1 jun1) 440-451
Zhengping (heng4 ping2) 451-452

nan2 an1 wang2
tou4 ba2 yu2
452
Yongping (ong3 ping2) or Chengping (cheng2 ping2) 452
wen2 cheng2 di4
tou4 ba2 jun4
452-465
Xingan (xing1 an1) 452-454

Xingguang (xing1 guang1) 454-455
Taian (tai4 an1) 455-459
Heping(he2 ping2) 460-465

xian4 wen2 di4
tou4 ba2 hong2
466-471
Tianan ( tian1 an1) 466-467

Huangxing ( huang2 xing1) 467-471

xiao4 wen2 di4
yuan2 hong2
471-499
Yanxing (yan2 xing1) 471-476

Chengming ( cheng2 ming2) 476
Taihe (tai4 he2) 477-499

xuan1 wu3 di4
yuan2 ke4
500-515
Jingming (jing3 ming2) 500-503

Zhengshi (zheng4 shi3) 504-508
Yongping (ong3 ping2) 508-512
Yanchang ( yan2 chang1) 512-515

xiao4 ming2 di4
yuan2 xu3
516-528
Xiping (xi1 ping2) 516-518

Shengui ( shen2 gui1) 518-520
Zhengguang (zheng4 guang1) 520-525
Xiaochang (xiao4 chang1) 525-527
Wutai (wu3 tai4) 528

xiao4 zhuang1 di4
yuan2 zi5 you1
528-530
Jianyi (jian4 yi4) 528

Yongan ( yong3 an1) 528-530

hang2 guang3 wang2 or Jing Di jing4 di4
yuan2 ye4
530-531
Jianming ( jian4 ming2) 530-531
jie2 min3 di4
yuan2 gong1
531-532
Putai (pu3 tai4) 531-532
an1 ding4 wang2 or Chu Di chu1 di4
yuan2 lang3
531-532
Zhongxing (hong1 xing1) 531-532
xiao1 wu3 di4
yuan2 xiu1
532-535

Taichang (tai4 chang1) 532

 

Yongxing (yong3 xing1) 532
Yongxi (yong3 xi1) 532-535

Dong (Eastern) Wei Dynasty 534-550
Convention: Dong (Eastern) Wei + posthumous name
xiao1 jing4 di4
yuan2 shan4 jian4
534-550
Tianping (tian1 ping2) 534-537

Yuanxiang (yuan2 xiang4) 538-539
Xinghe ( xing1 he2) 539-542
Wuding (wu3 ding4) 543-550

Bei (Northern) Qi Dynasty 550-577
Xi(Western)Wei Dynasty 535-556
Bei(Northern) Zhou Dynasty 557-581
Song (Southern ) Dynasty 420-479
Qi (Southern) Dynasty 479-502
Liang (Southern ) Dynasty 502-557
Chen(Southern ) Dynasty 557-559
Nan(Southern ) Dynasty 555-587
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