Topography and geomorphology:
The topographies of Jiangxi are dominated by mountainous and hilly land, with mountains covering 36 percent of the province's total territory, hills, 42 percent. The remaining 22 percent is composed of plains and waters. Most of its mountains lie on the provincial borders. Mount Huaiyu in the northeast has the province¡¯s largest copper reserve; Wuyi Mountain, a World Cultural Heritage site, lies in the eastern part; the Dageng Ridge and Jiulian Mountain in the south are known as the "capital of tungsten"; in the west there is the Luoxiao Mountain; and in the northwest lie the mountains of Mufu and Jiuling.
Jiangxi¡¯s annual average temperature is around 18¡ãC. Temperatures in the northeastern and northwestern areas and that along the Yangtze River are lower than other parts of the province, ranging from 16¡ãC to 17¡ãC. The other parts of the province are warmer, with temperatures ranging from 18¡ãC-20¡ãC.
Jiangxi has plentiful rainfall. The average annual rainfalls range between 1,341 mm and 1,940 mm. Precipitation is richer in its southern, eastern and mountainous regions and less in the northern, western and basin areas. The average annual rainfall in the mountains of Wuyi, Huaiyu and Jiuling can be as high as 1,800-2,000 mm while that of the area along the Yangtze River and the Poyang Lake and the Jitai Basin is between 1,350 mm and 1,400 mm. The other parts of the province have average annual rainfalls of 1,500-1,700 mm.
Jiangxi has abundant mineral resources. Of the 150 known minerals, more than 140 have been found in Jiangxi. Among these, the deposits of 89 have been verified, with 33 of them ranking among the top fives of the country. Ferrous metals in Jiangxi include iron, manganese, titanium and vanadium. Among the 13 non-ferrous and precious metals are copper, lead, zinc, gold and silver. There are also 29 rare and rare-earth minerals, such as niobium and tantalum. The province has developed the largest copper mine in Asia and its copper smelting base is the largest in China.
Fifty-nine percent of Jiangxi¡¯s territory is covered with forest. Its timber reserve amounts to 250 million cubic meters, in addition to 1 billion plants of bamboo, both figures taking leading positions in the country. Most of the forests in the province belong to natural secondary forests. Coniferous forests occupy a larger proportion, with pine and masson pine being the major species. Tea-oil tree, tung tree and Chinese tallow tree are the major economic species scattering across the province.
The province boasts more than 4,000 species of seed plants, some 470 types of pteridophyte and over 100 types of bryophyte. Among the low plants, the varieties of large fungus alone are as many as 500. There are more than 2,000 species of woody plants, including over 400 kinds of arbor. Jiangxi is also home to many ancient trees, such as ginkgo, known as the "living fossil" of plants.
The good ecological environment characterized with rich water resource, changing topographies and wide coverage of vegetation ensures Jiangxi¡¯s abundance in wildlife. And its protection of the environment and wildlife has shown effective results in recent years.
Jiangxi now has over 600 kinds of vertebrates, including over 170 species of fish which account for 21.4 percent of the national total of freshwater fish. There are more than 40 species of amphibious animals, accounting for 20.4 percent of the national total; some 70 species of reptiles, accounting for 23.5 percent of the country; 270 species of birds, accounting for 23.2 percent; and 50 species of beasts, accounting for 13.3 percent of the nation¡¯s total.
Fish and birds, large in number of species, have great economic value and therefore have the priority for protection. Poyang Lake presents an ideal winter shelter for migratory birds.
Jiangxi boasts more than 2,400 rivers and streams, some 160 of which, totaling 18,400 km in length, having water running all year round. Ganjiang, Fuhe, Xinjiang, Xiuhe and Raohe are the five largest rivers in the province. Jiangxi¡¯s total water reserve is 141.6 billion cubic meters; both the figures of per capita and per unit of cultivated land are higher than the national average. The abundant water resources have created a favorable condition for Jiangxi¡¯s industrial and agricultural production.
Jiangxi has beautiful landscapes with green mountains and clear waters. The major scenic spots include: Mount Lushan, Jinggang Mountain, Longhu (Dragon and Tiger) Mountain, Sanqing Mountain, Poyang Lake, and the cities of Nanchang and Jingdezhen.
Mount Lushan has been listed as a World Heritage site by the UNESCO. Together with Jinggang and Sanqing mountains, it offers charming peaks and quiet valleys.
Guifeng Peak and Dragon Palace are noted for their precipitous cliffs and deep caves. The landscapes of Poyang Lake and Ganjiang River are attractive while ancient temples at Longhu Mountain, Qingyuan and Donglin attract visitors with unique religious architectures.
Other scenic attractions or sites of historical interest include Tengwang Tower, Bajing Terrace, the former residences of historical nobilities in Linchuan and Jiujiang, headquarters of the Red Army on Jinggang Mountain, Memorial Museum of Nanchang Uprising and Ruijin, the first capital of the Communist administration in China.
The northern Jiangxi triangle tourism zone comprising Nanchang, Lushan Mountain, Jiujiang, Poyang Lake and Longhu Mountain is one of the 14 major international tour routes in China. The province has 11 cultural relics put under state protection and 2,406 of its scenic spots or tourism areas have been registered as major provincial projects.
Population growth rate: 9.8¡ë
Life expectancy (average): 68.3 years (2000).
Ethnicity: Jiangxi is home to 38 ethic groups, of which the Han people are the largest group, accounting for 99 percent of the province's total population. Major minority ethnic groups include the Hui, She, Zhuang, Manchu, Miao, Yao, Mongolian, Dong, Korean, Tujia and Bouyei, with the Hui and She having larger populations. Among other ethnic minorities living in Jiangxi there are the Bai, Yi, Li, Gaoshan, Tibetan, Sui, Dai, Maonan, Naxi, Xibe, Tu, Hani, Qiang, Mulam, Uygur, Lisu, Daur, Gelao, Yugur, Jing, Derung, Lahu, Jingpo, Brang, Russian and Jino.
The She people live in some 30 compact communities in the counties of Qianshan, Guixi, Yongfeng, Ji'an, Xingguo, Wuning, De'an, Zixi, Yihuang and Le'an. Some of the Yao people live in compact communities in Nanyao Mountain and Laba Mountain.
There are averagely 259 people living in a square kilometer of land in the province
GDP growth rate: 10.5 percent
GDP ratio (1st, 2nd and tertiary industries): 24.2 : 35 : 40.8.
Revenues: 20.01 billion yuan (US$2.42 billion) in 2001, up by 16.6 percent from that of the previous year.
Industrial output value: The total added industrial output value of the province reached 59.1 billion yuan (US$7.1 billion) in 2001, 10.6 percent more than that of the previous year.
Agricultural output value: 76 billion yuan (US$9.18 billion) in 2000, up by 2.8 percent from the previous year.
A total of 1,193 products in 58 categories are exported from Jiangxi to 153 countries and regions in the world. The customs statistics show that the annual value of imports and exports in 2000 reached US$1.6 billion, up by 23.36 percent from the previous year. Of this figure, export accounted for US$1.2 million, up by 32.1 percent, and rest amount of US$400 million was from import, up by 4.6 percent.
In 2001, the province¡¯s total foreign investment reached US$550 million, a 68 percent growth compared with that of the previous year. A total of 274 new foreign investment projects reached agreements in the year, an increase of 9.6 percent. The contractual foreign capital amounted to US$265.68 million, a decrease of 30.3 percent. As many as 247 new foreign-funded enterprises were registered in the year, raising the number of foreign-invested enterprises in Jiangxi to 2,246 by the end of 2001.
Poverty alleviation plan:
By the end of 2000, 895,000 Jiangxi residents were living under the poverty line. At a meeting held on January 10, 2002, the provincial leading group for poverty alleviation outlined its poverty alleviation plan and formulated the principles for the management and use of the government¡¯s poverty-relief allocation.
1. Giving the priority of poverty alleviation endeavor to 563 townships where the rural residents¡¯ average per capita annual net income was less than 1,300 yuan (US$157) in the three years from 1997-99.
2. During the 2001-05 period, 1,200 poor villages, including 720 villages in the 21 poorest counties designated by the state and 480 others, shall enjoy priority in receiving assistance for poverty alleviation.
3. Of the government allocation, 80 percent shall be used in key poor villages; of that, 60 percent shall be used in the key villages of key poor counties and the rest 40 percent shall be used in key villages of other counties. The purpose of the government aid is to help improve their basic conditions for living and production, including developing infrastructure facilities.
4. Ten percent of the poverty-relief fund shall be allocated for supporting science and technology in the poor areas. Of this amount, 5 percent shall be used for setting up demonstration bases and the rest shall be used for training and the promotion of science and technology.
5. The remaining 10 percent of the total fun shall be reserved for emergency use.
Jiangxi has convenient water and land transportation facilities. Five trunk railway lines link the province with other regions of the country, such as the Zhejiang-Jiangxi, Xiangtan-Jiujiang, Yingtan-Xiamen and Beijing-Kowloon railways. A total of 2,241 km railways are open to traffic, with 200 railway stations in operation.
Jiangxi has an established highway network with cities such as Nanchang, Ganzhou, Ji'an, Shangrao, Fuzhou, Yichun and Jiujiang as road transportation hubs. The mileage open to traffic totals 37,318 km, of which 30.48 percent are first-grade and second-grade roads. All the townships in the province now are linked by highways.
With the Poyang Lake and the Yangtze River in its territory, Jiangxi has a waterway navigation network totaling 5,537 km in mileage. The Jiujiang Port provides direct linkage to overseas ports. Fifty-six of the province¡¯s ports have an annual handling capacity of 10,000 tons or more, their berths totaling 712.
Nanchang Airport offers domestic flights to major Chinese cities, including Beijing, Shanghai, Wuhan, Guangzhou, Changsha, Xi'an, Ningbo, Xiamen, Wenzhou, Fuzhou and Ganzhou. There are direct flights from Mount Lushan to Beijing and Huiyang in Guangdong Province
Nanchang is the capital of Jiangxi Province, which is located in the northern part of it. Established in the Han Dynasty£¬ Nanchang has a centuries-old history. It is better known as the birthplace of the Red Army now, because it is the city in which the Chinese Red Flag was first raised at the site of the August 1 Nanchang Uprising. Today`s Nanchang is also a sizable industrial center, being particularly strong in automotive products, pharmaceuticals, food and textiles.
The mountains around Nanchang are great features for visitors, so sometimes referred to as a "Green Pearl in Southern China". Among them Dragon & Tiger Mountain is a Taoist sacred mountain. Tengwang Pavilion on Dragon & Tiger Mountain lies on the bank of the Yangtze River and has inspired many writers and scholars who have used the delicately carved pavilion as a meeting place.
The Nanchang Folk Custom Museum displays artifacts from Gan Culture and traditional folk art of the Jiangxi area. This museum embraces the ancient history of Nanchang and the Jiangxi Province. Bada Shanren's Residence has displays about the life and times of the Qing dynasty.
Jiujiang is located in northern Jiangxi Province, on the southern bank of the juncture of the lower and middle reaches of the Yangtze River. It lies in the joint of Jiangxi, Hubei, Hunan, and Anhui provinces, stretching out along the southern bank of the Yangtze River. It has flourished as an important commercial center and was well-known as one of the "Four Great Rice Cities" and one of the "Three Great Tea Cities" since ancient times.
Jiujiang covers a transitional area between the central sub-tropical and northern sub-tropical regions. Its annual average temperature is 16-17¡ãC; Annual rainfall, 1300-1600mm; frost-free period, 239-266 days per year; and the average number of foggy days is never more than 16 days per year. Jiujiang is a city with a temperate climate, ample rainfall, ample sunshine and four distinctive seasons.
The land and water modern transportation is very convenient. Jiujaing port is one of the biggest ports of Yangtze River valley, its passenger transportation and freight transportation is numbering the second and the fourth of all ports along the Yangtze River. Beijing-Kowloon Railway, Wujiu (Wuhan- Jiujiang), Hejiu (Hefei-Jiujiang) jion together, Tongjiu (Tongling-Jiujiang) railway are constructing now; Changjiu and Jiujing Expressways and the 105, 316 national highways pass through Jiujiang. Jiujiang airport is running actively.
"The nine parts of Jiujiang city like a wonderful painting." Jiujiang are gifted advantageous situation and splendid scenery by magical nature. On the earth of 18,823 square km, there are about 400 scenic spots which appear glorious and magnificent landscape painting, at the same time it form a big tourist region which include "six districts" (Guling, Shannan, Shahe,Yongxiu, Xunyang, Gongqing),"two spots" (Stone Bell Hill, Dragon Palace Cave), "one line" (tourist line along Poyang Lake).
Jiujiang is consisting of a famous mountain, famous river, famous lake, famous city, 400 scenic spots, 120 developed scenic spots and 30 tourism lines. There are one national scenic spot and 8 provincial scenic spots. In 2001, it was assessed as excellent tourist city of China. After experienced times¡¯ billow, Jiujiang is walking to the world and usher in the future with solid paces.
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