Hainan Province lies at the southernmost tip of China, facing Guangdong Province in the north across the Qiongzhou Strait; the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in the west across the Beibu Gulf (Gulf of Tonkin), and Taiwan Province in the east across the South China Sea. To the south and southeast it is bounded in the South China Sea by the Philippines, Brunei and Malaysia. Encompassing Hainan Island, Xisha Archipelago, Zhongsha Archipelago and Nansha Archipelago as well as their dependent waters, Hainan Province covers a land area of 35,000 square kilometers and a sea area of approximately 2 million square kilometers. Hainan Island is China's second largest island after Taiwan, with an area of 33,900 square kilometers (not including its satellite islets). Zengmu Shoal of Nansha Archipelago is the southernmost part of Chinese territory
With Mt. Wuzhi (Fiver Fingers) and Mt. Yingge (Parrot) standing at its very heart, Hainan Island has a staircase-like topographic structure descending step by step from towering mountains to flat tablelands and plains at its periphery.
Most mountains on Hainan Island are 500 to 800 meters high, but 81 of its peaks are higher than 1,000 meters. Among those rising 1,500 meters or higher above sea level are Mount Wuzhi, Mount Yingge, Mount Ezong, Mount Houmi, Yajiada Ridge and Mount Diaoluo. These mountains mostly fall into three mountain ranges: the Wuzhi Mountain located in the central part of Hainan Island with its highest peak 每 also the highest peak on the whole island 每 at an elevation of 1,867.1 meters; the Yingge Mountain lying northwest of Mt. Wuzhi with its highest peak at an elevation of 1,811.6 meters; and the Yajiada Mountain in the west of the island with its highest peak rising 1,519.1 meters above sea level. Most rivers on the island origins from the central mountainous area, forming a radiating river system. The inland has 154 streams flowing directly into the sea. The total drainage area covered by the three major rivers of Nandu, Changhua and Wanquan accounts for 47 percent of the island＊s territory.
A tropical maritime climate prevails in Hainan, bringing it all-year-round windy but warm days, abundant rainfall, clearly divided dry and wet seasons, frequent tropical storms and typhoons, as well as diversified climatic resources. Winterless Hainan Island has an annual sunshine time of 1,750 to 2,650 hours, a yearly average temperature of 23?C to 25?C, and an average annual rainfall of above 1,600 mm. The wet central part and east coast of Hainan receives more rainfall than the semi-dry southwest coast and other semi-wet areas. Winter and spring are usually dry while summer and autumn produce the wettest seasons.
Hainan Island makes up 42.5 percent of the nation＊s total tropical land, with an average per capita possession of 0.48 hectares of land used for agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery. As a result of such excellent conditions as sunlight, heat and water, farmlands here can be cultivated anytime of the year, and many plants can yield two or three crops a year. Based on their suitability, the land in Hainan Island can break down into seven major categories: that suitable for farming, for rubber planting, for tropical crops growing, for forestation, for livestock breeding, for aquaculture, and for other purposes. Currently, 3.152 million hectares of land in Hainan Island have been cultivated, while 260,000 hectares remain virgin soil, around 90 percent of which are potential farming lands. Most wastelands awaiting reclamation join together, favorable for large-scale exploitation and tractor-ploughing.
Grain crops, which have the widest distribution and highest yield in Hainan, mainly comprise rice, upland rice, shanlanpo rice, wheat, sweet potato, cassava, taro, maize, Chinese sorghum, millet and beans. Among the industrial crops are sugarcane, hemp, peanut, sesame, tea, etc. There also exist great variety of both cultivated and wild fruits that come under 29 families and 53 genera. Cultivated commodity fruits consist of pineapple, litchi, longan, banana, plantain, citrus, mango, watermelon, parambola, jackfruit, and the like. In addition, over 120 kinds of vegetables are grown here. Hainan Island is rich in tropical crop resources. Major tropical crops with large growing area and of high economic value include rubber plant, coconut palm, oil palm, betel palm, pepper, sisal hemp, lemon grass, cashew, cocoa and others.
More than 4,000 kinds of plants grow in Hainan, roughly one-seventh of the nation＊s total, of which over 600 are peculiar to this island. Its tropical forests characterized by conspicuous vertical zoning and mixed growth of trees of different species and ages, and with high trunks and broad crowns are mainly distributed over the mountains of Wuzhi, Jianfeng, Bawang, Diaoluo and Limu, with those in the Wuzhi Mountain belonging to rain forests.
Hainan is home to over 500 species of terrestrial vertebrates, including 37 kinds of amphibians (of which 11 are only discovered in Hainan, and eight have been listed as animals unique to China), 104 kinds of reptiles, 344 kinds of birds and 82 varieties of mammals (21 of which are peculiar to Hainan). In addition to black-crested gibbon 每 one of the four anthropoid apes living on earth 每 and slope deer (Cervus eldi) that are among the rarest species of the world, there are such treasured animals as sambar (Cervus unicolour), macaque and cloud-leopard. Currently, 14 kinds of wild animals here are under first-class state protection, and 88 under second-class state protection.
Hainan is rich in medicinal herbs. Of the 4,000-odd kinds of plants growing here, about 2,500 can be used as medicinal herbs. Besides, about 50 kinds of animals and marine products can be used to serve medicinal purposes too.
Vast offshore fishing grounds with an area of nearly 300,000 square kilometers, great variety of aquatic products with a short growth period, and long fishing season form the characteristics of Hainan＊s aquatic and marine resources turns Hainan into an ideal place to develop tropical marine fishery. There are more than 800 kinds of aquatic products here, including 600-odd fishes, of which over 40 are cash fishes. The province＊s coastal beaches that can be used for sea-farming totals up to 25,700 hectares.
Hainan Island is China＊s ideal natural saltworks. Salt can be made by evaporating brine in the sun along its long coast stretching for hundreds of miles from Sanya to Dongfang. At present, several large saltworks, such as Yinggehai, Dongfang and Yuya, have been developed.
Hainan is rich in mineral resources. Explorations up to 1991 show that among the 148 minerals with verified workable reserves nationwide, 57 (or 65 if classified based on their potential industrial purposes) are of certain mining value in Hainan. In addition, 126 mineral deposits (including six large groundwater sources) have had their reserves verified. Over 10 varieties of superior minerals produced here hold a very important position in China＊s mining industry, including glass-quality quartz sand, natural gas, titanium, zircon, sapphire, crystal, gibbsite, oil shale and zeolite. The reserves of iron ore accounts for roughly 70 percent of the country＊s high-grade iron ore reserves. The reserves of titanium and zircon make up 70 and 60 percent of the country＊s total respectively. In addition, gold, granite and mineral water here are of significant developmental value.
Hainan abounds with oil and natural gas. General survey and exploration have targeted three large sedimentation basins 每 the Beibu Gulf, Yingge Sea and southeast Hainan 每 with a total area of around 120,000 square kilometers, of which 60,000 square kilometers prospect well with oil-gas mines. The potential reserves of hydroelectricity on Hainan Island amount to 1 million kilowatts, of which 650,000 kilowatts are expected to generate 2.6 billion kw/h of electricity annually. The volume of groundwater hits about 7.5 billion cubic meters, making up 20 percent or so of Hainan＊s total water reserves, of which approximately 2.53 billion cubic meters are potentially exploitable. Its untapped energy sources with great potentialities include ocean energy, solar energy and bioelectricity.
Distinctive tourism resources abound in Hainan. Sandy coasts take about 50 to 60 percent of its 1,528-kilometer coastline. The beaches are usually hundreds of or thousands of meters wide, stretching gently into the sea with a slope of five degrees. Located alongside an unruffled sea, with crystal-clear seawater at the temperatures between 18 ?C and 30?C, plus bright and abundant sunlight, most of its beaches are good for swimming, sunbath, sand-bath and wind-bath almost all year round. Under the cool shade of the trees, the air is very refreshing too. Over 60 spots dispersed along the eastern coastline between Haikou and Sanya can be developed to bathing beaches. Also lie along the eastern coastline are mangroves and coral reefs that are unique to tropical coastal areas.
Hainan is noted for its singularly-shaped mountains, of which many are tourist attractions and summer resorts. Densely spread tropical primeval forests are characteristic of Hainan＊s lofty mountains, such as the four most well-known virgin forest regions of Mount Jianfeng in Ledong County, Mount Bawang in Changjiang County, Mount Diaoluo in Lingshui County and Mount Wuzhi in Qiongzhong County.
To protect rare birds and animals, several wildlife reserves and domesticating fields have been established in Hainan, including the Bawangling Black-crested Gibbon Reserve in Changjiang County, the Datian Slope Deer Reserve in Dongfang County, the Dazhou Isle Esculent Swift Reserve in Wanning City, and the Macaque Reserve on the Nanwan Peninsula in Lingshui County.
Hainan Island is densely crossed by limpid rivers. Winding streams, deep pools, fantastic waterfalls and mirror-like reservoirs dotted in the mountains and virgin forests add beauty to the landscapes and attract tourists.
Historical volcanic eruptions have left many craters on Hainan Island. Two typical craters connected by a caving-in gap-bed ridge are located on Mount Shuangling with an elevation of over 200 meters in Shishan, Qiongshan city. The nearby Leihuling Crater and Luojingpan Crater are also well preserved. In addition, there are a number of karst caves such as the well-known Luobi (Pen-dropping) Cave in Sanya, Qianlong (Thousand Dragon) Cave in Baoting County and Huangdi (Emperor) Cave in Changjiang County.
Hot springs are widely dispersed on the island. Due to their low mineralization, high temperature, big flow and high quality, many of the hot spring waters have curative effects. Furthermore, the hot springs are all located in places with attractive landscapes, providing excellent conditions for developing holiday resorts for combined purposes of tourism, sightseeing, convalescence, and scientific researches.
The island also offer many historical sites, such as the Wugong (Five Revered Officials) Temple in memory of five renowned court officials of the Tang (960-1279) and Song (618-907) dynasties who were relegated to Hainan Island; the Dongpo Academy of Classical Learning and Lord Su＊s Temple in commemoration of Su Dongpo, a literary giant of the Northern Song Dynasty (960-1127); the Tomb of Qiu Jun, a noted official of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644); the Grave of Hai Rui, an upright official of the Ming Dynasty; and Mafubo Well dug by General Fubo of the Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220), as said in legends. Other attractions of historical interest include the Ancient Town in Yazhou, the Wei Family Temple, Qiongtai Academy of Classical Learning, and Wenchang Pavilion. There are also revolutionary sites such as the former site of the Qiongya Corps headquarters; memorial statue to the Red Detachment of Women in Jiaji town; Jinniuling Cemetery of Revolutionary Martyrs; Memorial Hall of Baisha Uprising; Ancestral Home of the Song Family; and Mme Soong Ching-ling＊s Memorial Museum.
Hainan is the home of the Li as well as many other ethnic groups who still hold to their unsophisticated folk customs and unique living habits, which have made the island even more valuable in culture and tourism.
Farms of tropical crops on the island also present charming pictures of unique rural scenery.
Environment and current issues
The province has spared no efforts in maintaining the environment index at and above the first class. Comprehensive measures for improving urban environment have reduced noise pollution in main cities. The quality of both surface water and seawater in most areas has reached or even surpassed the country＊s second class level. By the end of 2002, 19 environmental monitoring stations with 283 monitoring personnel have been established in the province, and 65 nature reserves, including six national and 22 provincial, have been set up
Total population: 8.03 million (2002).
Population growth rate
In 2002, Hainan had a birthrate of 15.2㏑, a mortality rate of 5.72㏑ and a natural population growth rate of 9.48㏑.
Hainan Province is home to 36 ethnic groups. Besides the Han, China＊s majority, the Li, Miao and Hui are also natives of Hainan, with the Li being the earliest inhabitants on the island. As a consequence of Hainan＊s development since 1950, the other 33 ethnic groups moved in successively. Most of the Li, Miao and Hui people settle in central and south Hainan, while the Han people inhabit northeast and north Hainan as well as the coastal areas.
In 2002, 99.43 percent of school-aged children in Hainan went to school. Throughout that year, there were 1.02 million primary school pupils, 377,900 junior high school students, 78,300 high school students, 8,416 secondary vocational school students, 31,813 secondary technical school and normal school students, and 34,711 college students
Hainan＊s GDP in 2002 totaled 62.3 billion yuan, 9.2 percent higher than the previous year. The added value of the first industry was 22.9 billion yuan, up 9.2 percent; that of the secondary industry was 14.35 billion yuan, up 11.5 percent; and that of the tertiary industry was 25.1 billion yuan, up 8.1 percent.
GDP ratio (1st, 2nd and tertiary industries): 36.9 : 25.5 : 37.6
Poverty alleviation plan
In 2001, Hainan＊s population living under the poverty line had decreased to 73,000 from 123,000 in the previous year.
By the end of 2002, the registered unemployment rate in the city＊s urban districts and towns was 3.5 percent.
The province＊s total revenues in 2001 stood at 9.5 billion yuan, increasing by 15 percent over the previous year.
Industrial output value and growth rate
Hainan＊s industrial added value totaled up to 10.2 billion yuan in 2002, growing by 14.5 percent over the previous year.
Agricultural output value and growth rate
Hainan＊s agricultural added value totaled up to 19.625 billion yuan (around US$2.45 billion) in 2000, growing by 10.2 percent over the previous year.
In 2002, the province＊s total import and export value stood at US$1.867 billion, up by 6.8 percent from the previous year. Of the figure, US$819 million were from export while US$1.048 billion were from import.
By the end of 2002, the province had utilized a total foreign director investment of 512 million yuan.
Hainan＊s pillar industries encompass agriculture, tourism, petrochemical industry, electronics and information, and marine bio-pharmaceutical industry.
Hainan＊s land communication relies mainly on highways with a total traffic mileage of over 17,000 km. A highway network links up all parts of the province owing to the three south-north and four east-west arterial highways that lead directly to all ports, cities and counties. Feeder highways stretch even farther into 318 villages and towns as well as all scenic spots on the island.
Marine transport occupies an important place in communications of sea-surrounded Hainan. The province has 68 natural harbors, of which 24 have been developed into ports, including the four largest, Haikou, Sanya, Basuo and Yangpu. Other major harbors encompass Qinglan, Puqian, Xincun, Baimajing, Bo＊ao, Xinying, etc. The ports of Haikou and Sanya have opened 69 ocean navigation lines to reach overseas ports in 24 foreign countries and regions.
Two international airports, the Meilan International Airport in Haikou and the Fenghuang International Airport in Sanya, have been built in Hainan. From there, scheduled flights can reach 39 domestic and overseas cities, including Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, Guangzhou, Shenyang, Taiyuan, Xi＊an, Changchun, Harbin, Dalian, Jinan, Qingdao, Yantai, Nanjing, Hefei, Ningbo, Fuzhou, Xiamen, Wenzhou, Chengdu, Chongqing, Kunming, Guiyang, Guilin, Zhengzhou, Wuhan, Changsha, Shenzhen, Shantou, Zhanjiang, Beihai, Changzhou, Lanzhou, Hong Kong, Singapore, Bangkok, Kuala Lumpur, etc
Sanya is an important political, economic, cultural and foreign trade port in the southern part of Hainan, China, and also a famous coastal tourist city filled with tropical landscapes and local customs. It has an area of 1,887 square kilometers, and a population of 3.8 million. Sanya has a tropical monsoon climate with an annual average temperature of 25.4 centigrade. Annual rainfall averages 1,450 millimeters. Possessing a number of excellent harbors, Sanya is an important port for import and export of trade with foreign countries. Therefore, Sanya is also named the 'South Gate of China'. Sanya is rich in forest and water resources. Mineral deposits include quartz, limestone, iron, and phosphorus. Sanya lies on a peninsula with beautiful beaches and charming scenery. The region's premier tourist attractions include Dadonghai, Tianya Haijiao, and the yalong Gulf. The famous products are mackerel, red snapper, sea cucumbers, sea horses, pearls, shark's fins, abalone, edible bird's nests, and agalloch eaglewood.
Sanya is a stretch of resort coastline with a small urban center along the southern edge of Hainan Island off the southern shores of China. When describing the charms of this tropical playground, Chinese tourist authorities start at paradise and work up the scale from there. In fact, Sanya is a fun place to stay and a blessed relief from the cold urban canyons of the north, but remember to take the most extravagant claims about the place with a pinch of salt
Haikou has tropical crops processing, electronics and textiles as the mainstays of its light industry, and it is a foreign trade and sea port city with advanced communications and a complete range of service equipment. In recent years, the town has developed into another modern Chinese city with large shops and colorful restaurants
Haikou remains something of a well-kept secret, unlike Sanya which is Hainan Island`s tourist destination of choice. The city has an excellent environment with pleasant broad palm-lined streets, French colonial architecture, Tang and Song Dynasty monuments which all make for an attractive backdrop to the everyday hustle and bustle of life in this port, with Han mainland immigrants mixing it up with Li and Miao ethnicities. With the sea on three sides the city enjoys a long coastline that features excellent bathing beaches and sea side resorts. Holiday Beach is the most popular of these, while Xixiu Beach is where the National sailing and windsurfing teams train and hold competitions.
Haikou also has a number of important sites of historical interest. The Wugong Temple which is reputed to be the "first building under the heaven", the Tomb of Hai Rui and the Xiuying Emplacement each serve as reminders of the historical importance of Haikou.
Xinglong is located on Hainan`s eastern coast in Wanning City which has promoted from a county to a city in August 5, 1996.? It is one and half hours` drive from Haikou Meilan Airport and just one hour and 20 minutes` drive to Sanya Phoenix International Airport.
Xing long in Chinese means prosperous which showed the wish of the new immigrates for a better life. Before the open of East Express from Haikou to Sanya, Xing Long was the most important stop on the way as it took more than 5 hours from Haikou to Sanya. So it was also called Empty City as all the groups arrived late afternoon for over night stay and left the next morning. So the shows by ladyboys during the evening have been very famous and become a must program for all group visitors.
Being a popular tourist destination, it is well-known not only for hot spring resorts and Tropical Botanical Garden which boasts a complete collection of tropical flora, but also tropical agriculture, coffee, rubber, pepper, and so on.? Xinglong is the largest coffee production destination of China. And it is also the biggest agricultural base ran by overseas Chinese from South East Asia who moved to Xinglong in 1952 due to the bad relationship between Chinese & South East Asia courtiers including Indonesia.
Baoting is a small city in the hills of Hainan Province, China. It`s about 75 kms from Sanya and it takes about 1.5 hrs to drive to Baoting from Sanya. Baoting used to be the island's second largest city (after the capital, Haikou), but is now being surpassed by nearby Sanya.
The city is the home town of the Soong sisters, two of whom married the Chinese leaders Sun Yat Sen and Chiang Kai Shek.
Ethnic Culture and Arts
Baoting and the Surroundings of Sanya are home to quite a number of nationalities, there are over 20 nationalities living in compact communities. Li and Miao are the two largest ethnic groups. Li is regarded as the aborigines of Hainan Island, majority of which live in compact community in mountainous area with their own language. Li is a vigorous minority boasting brilliant arts, dance and music, unparalleled dyeing and weaving talent. With the development of Hainan tourist industry, their ancient culture is opened to the outside world.
The long history and the multiple inhabitations have cultivated a colorful folk culture and art, while they have also developed rich local handicrafts and religious culture. Baoting's local culture and art consist of fairy tales, legends, folk dances, folk music, sculpture, gardening, religion and handicrafts. Every piece of the local folk culture and art can be a wonder and a surprise.
Baoting's folk weaving has been enjoying a long history and well known either home or abroad. It includes roughly the cloth weaving and the bamboo weaving. Cloth weaving is represented by cotton weaving by Li covers, bags and skirts, all known for elaborate patterns and colorful figures. Bamboo strips need be processed in many operations including scraping and polish before they can be woven into delicate handicrafts of different shapes serving different purposes.
Baoting's folk art represented by songs and dances of Li people and Miao people. Their dancing poses all originated from the basic motions for hunting and farming while the accompanying melodies all originated from local folk ballads.
Li people and Miao people enjoy singing and dancing very much. Upon an abundant harvest the Spring Festival or the "Lunar March 3 Festival", people with all their whole families gather in an opens field next to their villages, lighting up torches and dancing with accompaniment of gongs in various formations such as "deer hunting", "turning-back deer" or "coco shell". A dance named "Jumping over Bamboo" was listed by the nation as immateriality cultural heritage.