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The Complete Collection of Jades Unearthed in China-Vol.11 Jades Unearthed from the areas of Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, HongKong, Macao and Taiwan (sold out)
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The Complete Collection of Jades Unearthed in China-Vol.11 Jades Unearthed from the areas of Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, HongKong, Macao and Taiwan (sold out)
中国出土玉器全集-第十一卷 广东、广西、福建、海南、香港、澳门、台湾出土的玉器
Language:  Chinese and English bilingual
Author:  Edited by Quan Hong
Pub. Date:  2005-01 Weight:   kg ISBN:  7030160096
Format:  Hardcover Pages:  240
Subject:  Social Sciences > History
Series:   Size:  220x300mm
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The four provinces of Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian and Hainan are commonly labeled the area of Hunan, yet Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Macao, formed for historical or political reasons, also belonging culturally and geographically to the Hunan area. Thus, seven provinces belong in this geographical category. Although these areas are not traditionally known to be rich in natural jade and stone resources, since antiquity these materials have been mined, including tremolite and actinolite nephrites, and other valued stones.

Currently, the earliest jade ornaments are those belonging to the Middle Neolithic Period. The Late Neolithic is represented by remains at Shicia, Maba, Qujiang County, Guangdong, covering 4000 sqm and including 132 burials, excavated from 1973 to 1979 and in 1985.

Ten tall and short cong were unearthed from Shixia Culture. An openwork jade huan decorated with serrated motif and worked on its inner wall, as well as, is comparable with Liangzhu prototypes. Cong, bi and huan are rarely seen in Shixia Culture burials at the delta of Pearl River.

Lower and middle strata remains at Tanshishan, Minhou County in Fujian are a coastal Late Neolithic Culture with two phases of development. Tanshishan Culture remains are influenced by both Liangzhu and Shixia Cultures.

From 1980 to 1988, some 1000 jades were unearthed from 1,523 stone plank coffins at the site of Beinan in Taidong County. The second excavation in 1998 at Baojingwan site in Zhuhai, Guangdong uncovered 204 ornaments, including jade slit rings and huan; crystal huang; stone pendants and ear pendants, and greenstone gui.

During Shang and Zhou Period, the numbers of workshops for producing jade and stone huan and slit rings increase at the mouth of Pearl River.

Many Eastern Zhou Period jade and stone artifacts come from the Nanning area in Guangxi. The slit ring type from Beinan, Taiwan has special characteristics. The large number of slit rings from the mouth Pearl River has various uses. Slit rings from Fujian are few in number. Jade and stone ge unearthed from Huanan sites, although a few may have been used, the majority appear to represent symbols of wealth and status.

Warring States or Qin to Han transition period tombs are known at Beiling, Songshan in Zhaoqing and Beifushan in Luoding. The height of jade-working in Huanan occurs during the Han Dynasty. For over fifty years, Han jades have been found in large numbers in tombs in both Guangdong and Guangxi. Few are known in Fujian and none so far have been published as coming from Hong Kong, Macal, Taiwan. The richest and most representative Han jades come from the tomb of King of Stage Nanyue in Guandong.

Han jades excavated from Guangxi sites are similar in technique, type and style to those from Guangdong, dating to the era of the Nanyue tomb and early phase of the Western Han.

During the era of the Three States, Jin and Southern Dynasties, jade artifacts slowly disappear. Ritual and ornamental jades are not seen and beads are rare. Jades dating to the Sui-Tang through Ming-Qing Periods are also few, represented, for example by a few burials in Guangdong and Guanxi.

The traditional grouping of jade and ritual types, popular during pre-Qin through Han times change during the Tang. Ornamental types predominate and replace ritual types in popularity. Raw jade sources during the Tang-Song through Qing eras were controlled by the royal house, with major restrictions on acquisition or production by commoners. During the Song and Yuan Dynasties cremation becomes popular. Jades are displayed in households for their worldly beauty, and jades in burials gradually decrease in type and number. Popularly carved motifs include flowers and plants, animals, landscapes, human figurines, and sometimes themes featuring poets waxing on the profundity of jade art.

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